Biological preparations based on predacious fungi against parasitic nematodes (threadworms) of plants and animals
28 january 2019, 07:45
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Currently, pest control remains an important issue for agriculture, since it affects productivity. The market of biopesticides in Russia is divided between the companies that produce biopesticides with one active element against one group of pests, and competition is high among biological preparations and agrochemicals. In Russia the demand for biopesticides is exceeding the supply. The main trade areas are south regions of Russia (Krasnodar, Stavropol and Voronezh).
Parasitic nematodes affect root system of many plants in protected and open soil. The global losses in crop sector from nematodes amount to 7-10%. The use of expensive and high-toxic chemical means of protection leads to contamination and increased sustainability of pests. Biopesticides serve as analogues to agrochemicals. They are microbiological preparations based on microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa) and waste products. However, such products have a limited sphere of application, which increases expenses on constant strain selection.
The search conducted by the company of the safe plant protection from helminthes allowed selecting effective in natural conditions fungus strain Duddingtonia flagrans, which is characterized by high indicators of nematophagous activity. A technology of obtainment of liquid and dry form of biopreparation is developed based on this strain. It can be used in crop sector against different types of nematodes and against helminthes in animals.
A method of obtainment of a product with high chlamydospores D. flagrans using soluble nutrients and exfoliated vermiculite as a carrier is proposed. Cycle time is reduced by 4-6 times as compared to known methods of predatory fungi growing on solid organic media. Consumption of fungal nematicide can be reduced by 4-8 times, while maintaining its efficiency, by optimizing the timing of bionematicide introduction, as well as by stimulating the use of additives.
The project is expected to market the line of effective and safe biological drugs based on predacious fungi for improving soil fertility and control of parasitic nematodes of plants and animals: biological preparations based on predacious fungi to control plant parasitic nematodes; biostimulant for plant growth on the basis of predatory fungi; biological products based on predacious fungi for the control of parasitic nematodes of animals.
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High efficiency: while used against plants nematodes it is effective in 86% of cases, in animals – 93-100%.
- Biological and ecological safety: preparations are not toxic. Analogous chemical preparations and preparations of microbiological synthesis on the market are toxic.
- Preparations don’t contain residuum of pesticides. It minimizes the health hazard of employees of greenhouses and plants’ pollinizers.
- The use increases soil fertility. It minimizes the time for soil’s recreation, alleviates environmental and water pollution.
- Prolonged functioning: in protected soil the preparation is effective during 3 years.
- Economy of application of preparation: optimal dose for liquid form of preparation (solid treatment) – 2 liters/1 square meter, for dry form – 100-150 grams/1 square meter.
- The use increases the volume of yield of vegetables.
- Preparation stimulates the growth of plants (a month after planting in soil plants are 20-25 centimeters higher than usually).
Results of trials demonstrate that when young plants of pine were infected with nematodes and root rot, a year after using a preparation the main group leads in growth over control samples by 50% and has a more developed root system.
Предлагаемый препарат изготавливается на основе хищных грибов - естественных хищников, антагонистов и конкурентов вредителей - для защиты растений и животных от паразитических нематод, препарат также обладает свойствами стимулятора роста.